Técnicos Agrícolas do IRGA – Uma luta sem fim!
14 de agosto de 2020
Técnico Agrícola: Um Gigante no Campo!
14 de agosto de 2020

Os desafios da operação e manutenção dos tratores agrícolas

A modernização dos setores de produção do agronegócio faz com que o uso das máquinas e implementos agrícolas tenha uma importância cada vez maior, necessitando, portanto, de melhor qualificação dos profissionais que fazem sua operação e manutenção.


Muitos são os desafios para que se obtenha o melhor rendimento possível destes equipamentos, proporcionando menores custos de produção e consequentemente maior renda aos produtores rurais. Estes desafios se apresentam em vários aspectos, quer sejam no âmbito geoclimático, tecnológico, cognitivo, de projeto e ate mesmo no aspecto cultural.


No âmbito do aspecto geoclimático, nossa condição de país continental de clima tropical, com importantes diferenciais de clima e solo, nos apresenta condições de operação significativamente variadas, com operações em terrenos secos, alagados, de planícies ou de topografia onduladas e ate mesmo bastante inclinadas, no caso, por exemplo, dos parreirais. Também esta nossa condição de clima tropical, nos proporciona utilizar estes equipamentos praticamente nos doze meses do ano, o que de maneira geral provoca uma diminuição no tempo para realizar manutenções.


Nos Estados Unidos, por exemplo, normalmente trabalham oito meses e nos quatro meses de nevascas aproveitam o tempo para manutenção dos equipamentos. A modernização acelerada das maquinas agrícolas, trazendo melhorias e tecnologias como piloto automático, telemetria, GPS, sistemas de proteção de motor, caixa de cambio automática, sistemas hidráulicos eletrônicos, entre outras, nos traz desafios tecnológicos consideráveis no sentido de entender estas tecnologias e as utilizar da melhor maneira possível potencializando o  desempenho destes equipamentos.


No âmbito da manutenção, a melhoria de motores e a preocupação com o meio ambiente, observando-se neste caso as novas regras do Programa PROCONVE, colocam aos operadores um enorme desafio para a realização cada vez mais correta e assídua da manutenção destes equipamentos.


A constante preparação de profissionais quer seja para a operação ou manutenção destes equipamentos, faz com que o desafio cognitivo, do conhecimento, deva ter relevante importância nos programas de preparação de mão de obra para o meio rural. O conhecimento dos recursos tecnológicos existentes nos equipamentos e sua preparação para o trabalho é de fundamental importância para a correta operação e aumento da vida útil dos mesmos, onde o Manual de Operação e Manutenção Preventiva do equipamento é ferramenta básica e essencial para realizar estas tarefas.


Não devemos deixar de considerar que no que diz respeito aos desafios de projeto, os fabricantes têm promovido um considerável esforço para disponibilizar melhorias em seus equipamentos quer sejam em suas características técnicas e operacionais bem como na forma de levá-las aos operadores e mecânicos através dos Manuais de Operação e Manutenção. Exemplo bastante considerável no aspecto operacional é a apresentação de tratores isodiamétricos que passam a melhor atenderem a uma considerável cadeia produtiva do agronegócio que é o cultivo de hortifrutigranjeiros, em especial nas áreas declivosas.


A melhoria dos pontos de lubrificação e o fator de servicibilidade dos tratores tem sido uma constante nos melhoramentos apresentados pelos fabricantes. Mas não devemos deixar também de considerar que a premissa de que “eu faço as coisas como meu avô fazia” continua a ser um desafio cultural a ser enfrentado pelos fabricantes e pelos responsáveis em levar estes conhecimentos aos mais longínquos locais deste enorme Brasil, pois nossos tratores muito evoluíram desde o tempo do meu avô. Cabe, portanto a todos aqueles envolvidos com a mecanização agrícola, auxiliarem para que estes desafios sejam vencidos, buscando a melhoria dos processos produtivos, da qualidade das operações, do aumento da produtividade proporcionando um trabalho menos árduo ao homem do campo.

 

Autor: Téc. Agrícola Vitor Hugo Baratieri

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